# SHM - Pendulum

Q1.

(a) Describe the energy changes that take place as the bob of a simple pendulum makes one complete oscillation, starting at its maximum displacement.

(2 marks)

The diagram shows a young girl swinging on a garden swing.

You may assume that the swing behaves as a simple pendulum. Ignore the mass of chains supporting the seat throughout this question, and assume that the effect of air resistance is negligible.

15 complete oscillations of the swing took 42s.

(b)

(i) Calculate the distance from the top of the chains to the centre of mass of the girl and seat. Express your answer to an appropriate number of significant figures.

(4 marks)

(ii) To set her swinging, the girl and seat were displaced from equilibrium and released from rest. This initial displacement of the girl raised the centre of mass of the girl and seat 250 mm above its lowest position. If the mass of the girl was 18 kg, what was her kinetic energy as she first passed through this lowest point?

(2 marks)

(iii) Calculate the maximum speed of the girl during the first oscillation.

(1 mark)

(c)

On the diagram above draw a graph to show how the kinetic energy of the girl varied with time during the first complete oscillation, starting at the time of her release from maximum displacement. On the horizontal axis of the graph, T represents the period of the swing. You do not need to show any values on the vertical axis.

(3 marks)

(Total 12 marks)